Information systems are generally known as the basic computer system. We can also define it as an environment controlling or telephone switching system. The IS involves the resources of an information which is shared or processed. It also involves the people who manage the system.
We can consider people as the main part of the system because the system could not run properly without them.
There are many kinds of Information System. Some of them are as follow:
The transactions are needed to be processed by every firm for performing their daily operations of a business. A transaction means any kind of event or activity which affects the organization.
Transactions can differ according to the organization, depending on the business of an organization.
In a case of a manufacturing unit, transactions include the shipping, receipt of goods, order entry, etc. But in a bank, transactions means withdrawals and deposits, cashing of a cheque, etc.
Somehow, few of the transactions which include placing orders, record keeping of an employee, the hiring of the employees, etc. These all are mainly similar to all the organizations.
People do the use of a transaction processing systems (TPS) for supporting the processing of business transactions.
Office Automation System
An office automation system (OAS) is a gathering of a technology of a communication, persons and computers for performing any kind of office works.
It performs office transactions and supports activities of an office at every level of organizations. We can categorize these activities as managerial activities and clerical activities.
Printing, mailing, scheduling meetings, calendar keeping, office automation typesetting are included by the clerical activities which are performed with the help of an office automation system.
Creating reports and messages, controlling the performances of the organization are under the managerial activities. In office automation system, different applications, including, electronic filing, e-mail and word processing are integrated.
For preparing the documents like memos, letters, letters, or any other kinds of things which are printable by the electronic means, Word processing is used. By using the keyboard, the text is entered and it is displayed on the display unit of a computer.
You can edit, shore, and reproduce these texts with the help of the commands which are present in the word processor.
There are various facilities in word processors for grammar checking, spell checking, counting (characters, pages, lines, etc.), index creation, header and footer, automatic page numbering, etc.
E-mail, electronic mail helps in transferring of the messages and the documents with the help of computer and a computer lines.
This will help in delivering of a mail more speedily and is also very faster and cheaper than a paper mail. You can send and share images, videos, and many other kinds of data with the help of e-mail.
Voicemail is one of the important call services which allows recording and storing of the messages of the telephone in the memory of a computer. The person can view that message at any time.
A knowledge work system (KWS) is a very specialized system which is built in order to promote the creation of knowledge and to make the proper use of that knowledge and technical skills into the business.
It is very helpful for the knowledge workers for propagating and creating new information. There are many tools provided i.e. graphics, communications, analytical, and document management tools.
The knowledge workers will also need searching for the knowledge from outside of the organization. So, for an external database, knowledge work system must provide easy access.
In addition, knowledge work system needs to have an interface which is user-friendly. This will be very helpful in getting the required information very fast.
Management Information Systems
Management information systems are developed especially for supporting planning, controlling, as well as the function of decision making of middle managers.
A management information system (MIS) removes any kind of transaction data from the underlying TPSs, composes them, and produces the data products in the forms of displays, responses or reports.
The information is provided by these information products which confirms the needs of decision making of managers and the supervisors. The management of the information systems does with simple routines like comparisons and summaries.
It helps in allows the managers for taking the decisions for which the method of reaching to the solution has been specified in advance.
Usually, people use the management information systems for producing the reports on a basis of monthly, quarterly or yearly. But if the managers are willing to look the data daily or hourly, MIS lets them do so.
In addition, they provide an online access to the managers for performing as well as keeping the records of the organization.
An executive support system (ESS) is an expansion of MIS. It is a computer-based information systems which helps to make a decision at the organization’s top level. The decisions which people take with the help of the system of an executive support are the non-pattern decision.
This will affect the whole organization so it requires sight and judgment.
In comparison to DSSs, ESSs provides more capabilities of general computing, effective display options and better telecommunications. They use the modern graphics software for displaying the information which is fault-finding in the form of graphs or charts which helps senior executives for solving huge problems.
For making an effective decision, they use the internal data which they summarize from MIS and DSS as we as external data of the sources about the events such as new competitors, new tax law, etc.
They make it available for the managers of a strategic level, they filter, compress and track the data of a high importance.